Office of Naval Research
Grant #N000141010143
Grant #N000141310438

Publication: Modeling Gameplay Enjoyment, Goal Orientations, and Individual Characteristics


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between gameplay enjoyment, gaming goal orientations, and individual characteristics. A total of 301 participants were surveyed and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. This led to an expanded Gameplay Enjoyment Model (GEM) with 41 game design features that influence player enjoyment. Furthermore, a 3×2 Gaming Goal Orientations model was established with six dimensions that describe players’ motivations for gaming. In addition, players’ individual characteristics were used to predict gameplay enjoyment in the GEM-Individual Characteristics model. The six Gaming Goal Orientations dimensions were the strongest predictors, while the commonly used gender and hours played per week variables failed to predict enjoyment. The results of this study enable important work to be conducted surrounding gameplay experiences and individual characteristics. Ultimately, it is believed that the Gameplay Enjoyment Model, Gaming Goal Orientations, and the GEM-Individual Characteristics model will be useful tools
for researchers and designers who seek to create effective gameplay experiences that meet the needs of players.


The lates publication of Quick & Atkinson on Gameplay Enjoyment is to appear in IJGBL 4(4).

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